Alkalinizing Alternatives to Sodium Bicarbonate
Administration of sodium citrate and other citrate preparations appears to be associated with formation of bicarbonate; therefore, the drugs are used as alkalinizing agents.
Oral citrate solutions, including potassium citrate and citric acid, sodium citrate and citric acid, and tricitrates, are used as alkalinizing agents in conditions where long-term maintenance of an alkaline urine is desirable and in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis associated with conditions such as chronic renal insufficiency or renal tubular acidosis.
Selection of a specific preparation may in part be determined by the potassium and sodium contents. Preparations containing sodium citrate and citric acid are especially useful when administration of potassium salts is undesirable or contraindicated, while those containing potassium citrate and citric acid are used when administration of sodium salts is undesirable or contraindicated. Unlike sodium bicarbonate solution, these preparations are generally considered highly palatable and pleasant tasting, and may be particularly useful as an alkalinizing agent in patients who do not tolerate the taste of sodium bicarbonate oral solution.
Adjuvant in Gout Therapy
Potassium citrate and citric acid oral solution and tricitrates oral solution are used as adjuvant therapy to uricosuric agents in gout therapy.
Prevention of Milk Curdling
Sodium citrate has been used to alter cow's milk so that large hard curds are not formed in the stomach of feeding infants.