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ACCORD HEALTHCA
SKU
16729015301

ramipril 2.5 mg capsule

Generic
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Uses

Ramipril is used alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents (e.g., thiazide diuretics) in the management of hypertension. Ramipril also is used to reduce the risk of mortality (mainly cardiovascular mortality) following myocardial infarction in hemodynamically stable patients who have demonstrated clinical signs of heart failure within a few days following acute myocardial infarction; ramipril therapy also may reduce rate of heart failure-associated hospitalization and progression to severe and/or resistant heart failure. In addition, ramipril has been shown to reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events.

Because captopril, another angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, may cause serious adverse effects (e.g., neutropenia, agranulocytosis), particularly in patients with renal impairment (especially those with collagen vascular disease) or in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, the possibility that similar adverse effects may occur with ramipril should be considered since current evidence is insufficient to rule out such risk.

Hypertension

Ramipril is used alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents in the management of hypertension. ACE inhibitors are considered one of several preferred antihypertensive drugs for the initial management of hypertension; other options include angiotensin II receptor antagonists, calcium-channel blockers, and thiazide diuretics. While there may be individual differences with respect to specific outcomes, these antihypertensive drug classes all produce comparable effects on overall mortality and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal outcomes. ACE inhibitors may be particularly useful in the management of hypertension in patients with certain coexisting conditions such as heart failure, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, or cerebrovascular disease or following myocardial infarction. (See Uses: Hypertension in and in )

In general, black hypertensive patients tend to respond better to monotherapy with diuretics or calcium-channel blockers than to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors. Although ACE inhibitors have lowered blood pressure in all races studied, monotherapy with these agents has produced a smaller reduction in blood pressure in black hypertensive patients, a population associated with low renin hypertension; however, this population difference in response does not appear to occur during combined therapy with an ACE inhibitor and a thiazide diuretic or calcium-channel blocker. In addition, ACE inhibitors appear to produce a higher incidence of angioedema in black patients than in other races studied. (See Race under Hypertension: Other Special Considerations for Antihypertensive Therapy, in Uses in and in )

For additional information on the role of ACE inhibitors in the management of hypertension, and in . For information on overall principles and expert recommendations for treatment of hypertension, .

Mortality Reduction after Acute Myocardial Infarction with Heart Failure

Ramipril is used to reduce the risk of mortality (mainly cardiovascular mortality) following myocardial infarction in hemodynamically stable patients who have demonstrated clinical signs of heart failure within a few days following acute myocardial infarction; ramipril therapy also may reduce the rate of heart failure-associated hospitalization and progression to severe and/or resistant heart failure. In these patients, when compared with those receiving placebo, ramipril therapy initiated on average 5 (range: 2-9) days after acute myocardial infarction reduced risk of mortality from any cause by approximately 27% (90% of mortality was cardiovascular, mainly sudden death); risk of progression to severe heart failure and heart failure-associated hospitalization were reduced by 23 and 26%, respectively. In addition, ramipril reduced risk of mortality combined with other events (e.g., reinfarction, stroke, development of severe heart failure) by 19%. This evidence of efficacy was obtained from a large, controlled, long-term (average: 15 months; range: 6-46 months) study (the Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy; AIRE). Benefits of ramipril were observed by day 30 of drug therapy and were not affected by gender, exact timing of initiation of drug therapy, or by concomitant drugs (e.g., aspirin, nitrates, β-adrenergic blocking agents [β-blockers], thrombolytic agents, calcium-channel blocking agents, cardiac glycosides); however, such benefits appeared to be increased in patients 65 years and older and in those receiving diuretics. Ramipril did not appear to reduce the rates of reinfarction, although there was a trend to fewer such events when compared with placebo.

ACE inhibitors have been used to minimize or prevent the development of left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction (ventricular ''remodeling'') following acute myocardial infarction. However, current evidence regarding the efficacy of such therapy is conflicting, particularly when therapy was initiated early (within 24-48 hours) and included patients with no evidence of baseline left ventricular dysfunction. and

Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events

Ramipril may reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients 55 years of age and older who are at high risk for cardiovascular events (e.g., those with a history of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, or diabetes mellitus, in addition to at least one other cardiovascular risk factor, including hypertension, elevated serum total cholesterol and/or decreased high-density lipoprotein [HDL]-cholesterol concentrations, smoking, or documented microalbuminuria) and who are not known to have low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or heart failure. Ramipril may be used concomitantly with antihypertensive, antiplatelet, or antilipemic drugs. Results of a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation [HOPE]) of approximately 5 years' duration in more than 9000 patients 55 years of age or older with a history of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and at least one other cardiovascular risk factor (see above) indicate that ramipril (10 mg daily after an initial dosage of 2.5 mg daily for 1 week followed by 5 mg daily for 3 weeks) reduced the risk of cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction by about 25, 32, and 20%, respectively, compared with placebo. When compared with placebo, the drug also reduced the risk of cardiac arrest and heart failure by approximately 34 and 21%, respectively, and the need for coronary revascularization procedures by 15%. The exact mechanism of the beneficial effects of ramipril in high-risk patients for cardiovascular events has not been fully elucidated, but it appears that ACE inhibitors may antagonize the direct effects of angiotensin II thereby preventing the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and rupture of fibrous plaques. ACE inhibitors also may improve vascular endothelial function, reduce left ventricular hypertrophy, and enhance fibrinolysis.

In addition to these beneficial cardiovascular effects, a reduction in the incidence of diabetic complications was reported in 6.2% of patients receiving ramipril compared with 7.4% of those receiving placebo. New diagnosis of diabetes was reported in fewer patients receiving ramipril compared with those receiving placebo. Although the exact mechanism of the endocrine effects of ramipril is not known, it has been suggested that ACE inhibitors may prevent diabetic complications and new diagnosis of diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity and blood flow to the pancreas and by decreasing hepatic clearance of insulin. In addition, results of other studies indicate that in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, intensive control of blood pressure (e.g., an approximate target systolic pressure of less than 150 mm Hg and diastolic pressure of less than 85 mm Hg) using an ACE inhibitor (e.g., captopril) or a β-blocker (e.g., atenolol) resulted in a reduction of development or progression of complications of diabetes (e.g., death related to diabetes, stroke, heart failure, microvascular disease).

In the HOPE study, reduction of cardiovascular risk factors was observed within 1 year of initiation of ramipril therapy and continued throughout the study (approximately 5 years). Because interim analysis of this study after about 5 years revealed a clear evidence of a beneficial effect of ramipril, the study was discontinued.

Heart Failure

ACE inhibitors have been used in the management of heart failure, usually in conjunction with other agents such as cardiac glycosides, diuretics, and β-blockers.

Current guidelines for the management of heart failure in adults generally recommend a combination of drug therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality, including neurohormonal antagonists (e.g., ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors [ARNIs], β-blockers, aldosterone receptor antagonists) that inhibit the detrimental compensatory mechanisms in heart failure. Additional agents (e.g., cardiac glycosides, diuretics, sinoatrial modulators [i.e., ivabradine]) added to a heart failure treatment regimen in selected patients have been associated with symptomatic improvement and/or reduction in heart failure-related hospitalizations. Experts recommend that all asymptomatic patients with reduced LVEF (American College of Cardiology Foundation [ACCF]/American Heart Association [AHA] stage B heart failure) receive therapy with an ACE inhibitor and β-blocker to prevent symptomatic heart failure and to reduce morbidity and mortality. In patients with prior or current symptoms of chronic heart failure and reduced LVEF (ACCF/AHA stage C heart failure), ACCF, AHA, and the Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) recommend inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system with an ACE inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor antagonist, or ARNI in conjunction with a β-blocker, and an aldosterone antagonist in selected patients, to reduce morbidity and mortality. While ACE inhibitors have been the preferred drugs for inhibition of the RAA system because of their established benefits in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, some evidence indicates that therapy with sacubitril/valsartan, an ARNI, may be more effective than ACE inhibitor therapy (enalapril) in reducing cardiovascular death and heart failure-related hospitalization in such patients. ACCF, AHA, and HFSA recommend that patients with chronic symptomatic heart failure and reduced LVEF (New York Heart Association [NYHA] class II or III) who are able to tolerate an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist be switched to therapy containing an ARNI to further reduce morbidity and mortality. However, in patients in whom an ARNI is not appropriate, continued use of an ACE inhibitor for all classes of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction remains strongly advised. In patients in whom an ARNI or ACE inhibitor is not appropriate, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist may be used. For additional information on the use of ACE inhibitors in the management of heart failure, and .

Diabetic Nephropathy

Both ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been shown to slow the rate of progression of renal disease in patients with diabetes mellitus and persistent albuminuria, and use of a drug from either class is recommended in such patients with modestly elevated (30-300 mg/24 hours) or higher (exceeding 300 mg/24 hours) levels of urinary albumin excretion. The usual precautions of ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist therapy in patients with substantial renal impairment should be observed. For additional information on the use of ACE inhibitors in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, see

Dosage and Administration

Administration

Ramipril is administered orally. The rate but not the extent of GI absorption of the drug may be reduced by administration with food. Ramipril capsules usually are swallowed whole. However, if needed such capsules also may be opened and contents sprinkled in a small amount (about 120 mL) of applesauce or mixed in 120 mL of water or apple juice. To ensure that no drug is lost, the entire mixture should be consumed. These mixtures are stable for 24 hours at room temperature and 48 hours when refrigerated. The manufacturers state that serum ramiprilat concentrations are not affected when contents of ramipril capsules are mixed in applesauce or dissolved in water or apple juice.

Dosage

Dosage of ramipril must be adjusted according to patient tolerance and response. Because of the risk of inducing hypotension, initiation of ramipril therapy requires consideration of recent antihypertensive therapy, the extent of blood pressure elevation, sodium intake, fluid status, and other clinical circumstances. If therapy is initiated in a patient already receiving a diuretic, symptomatic hypotension may occur following the initial dose of the angiotensin-converting (ACE) inhibitor. To minimize the possibility of hypotension, especially in patients in whom diuretic therapy was recently initiated, it is recommended that diuretic therapy be discontinued, the diuretic dosage decreased, or salt intake increased, if possible, before initiating ramipril. If such changes are not possible, ramipril therapy should be initiated at a reduced dosage of 1.25 mg once daily.(See Cardiovascular Effects under Warnings/Precautions: Warnings, in Cautions.) For additional information on initiating ramipril in patients receiving diuretic therapy, see the disease-specific dosage sections in Dosage and Administration. Hypotension does not preclude the administration of subsequent doses of the drug, provided the hypotension has been managed effectively.

Hypertension

Usual Dosage

For the management of hypertension in adults not receiving a diuretic, the manufacturer states that the usual initial dosage of ramipril is 2.5 mg once daily. In patients currently receiving a diuretic, an initial ramipril dosage of 1.25 mg once daily is recommended; however, discontinuance or dosage reduction of the diuretic or an increase in salt intake is preferred.(See the introductory discussion under Dosage and Administration: Dosage.) Subsequent dosage of ramipril should be adjusted according to the patient's blood pressure response. If the blood pressure response diminishes toward the end of the dosing interval during once-daily administration, increasing the dosage or giving the drug in 2 divided doses daily should be considered. The usual maintenance dosage in adults is 2.5-20 mg daily, given as a single dose or in 2 divided doses daily. If blood pressure is not controlled with ramipril alone, a second antihypertensive agent (e.g., a diuretic) may be added.

The panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 8 expert panel) state that evidence-based dosing information (i.e., dosages shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce complications of hypertension) should be used when available to determine target dosages of antihypertensive agents. Target dosages of antihypertensive agents generally can be achieved within 2-4 weeks, but it may take up to several months.

Antihypertensive therapy should be titrated until goal blood pressure is achieved. If an adequate blood pressure response is not achieved with ramipril monotherapy, another antihypertensive agent with demonstrated benefit may be added; if goal blood pressure is still not achieved with the use of 2 antihypertensive agents at optimal dosages, a third drug may be added. In patients who experience intolerable adverse effects with ramipril, dosage reduction should be considered; if adverse effects worsen or fail to resolve, it may be necessary to discontinue the ACE inhibitor and initiate another class of antihypertensive agent.

Blood Pressure Monitoring and Treatment Goals

Careful monitoring of blood pressure during initial titration or subsequent upward adjustment in dosage of ramipril is recommended.

The goal of hypertension management and prevention is to achieve and maintain optimal control of blood pressure; specific target levels of blood pressure should be individualized based on consideration of multiple factors, including patient age and comorbidities, and the currently available evidence from clinical studies.

Mortality Reduction after Acute Myocardial Infarction with Heart Failure

When used after myocardial infarction in adults with clinical signs of heart failure, ramipril therapy may be initiated as early as 2 days after the myocardial infarction. An initial dosage of 2.5 mg twice daily is recommended, but if hypotension occurs, dosage should be reduced to 1.25 mg twice daily. After one week at the initial dosage, therapy is then titrated as tolerated, at intervals of about 3 weeks, to a target daily dosage of 5 mg twice daily. After the initial dose of ramipril, the patient should be observed closely for at least 2 hours and for at least 1 additional hour after blood pressure has stabilized. To minimize the likelihood of hypotension, the dosage of any concomitant diuretic should be reduced, if possible. The appearance of hypotension after the initial dose of ramipril does not preclude subsequent carefully titrated doses of the drug after the hypotension has been effectively managed. Dosage should be adjusted carefully under close medical supervision in patients with heart failure because of the risk of hypotension; such patients should be followed closely for at least 2 weeks after initiation of ramipril therapy or any increase in ramipril or diuretic dosage.

Prevention of Major Cardiovascular Events

For reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes, the manufacturers recommend that patients receive 2.5 mg once daily for the first week of therapy and 5 mg once daily for the following 3 weeks; dosage then may be increased, as tolerated, to a maintenance dosage of 10 mg once daily. In patients with hypertension or those with recent myocardial infarction, dosage of ramipril may be given in divided doses.

Heart Failure

In patients with prior or current symptoms of chronic heart failure and reduced LVEF (American College of Cardiology Foundation [ACCF]/American Heart Association [AHA] stage C heart failure), ACCF and AHA recommend an initial ramipril dosage of 1.25-2.5 mg once daily. The dosage should be slowly titrated upward as tolerated to dosages that have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in clinical trials; if such target dosages cannot be achieved or are poorly tolerated, ACCF and AHA state that intermediate doses should be used. ACCF and AHA recommend a maximum ramipril dosage of 10 mg once daily for patients with ACCF/AHA stage C heart failure.

Special Populations

If ramipril is used in patients with impaired renal function, dosage must be modified in response to the degree of renal impairment, and as with other ACE inhibitors, the theoretical risk of neutropenia must be considered. In adults with creatinine clearances less than 40 mL/minute, 25% of the usual doses are expected to induce full therapeutic concentrations of ramiprilat. For the management of hypertension in these patients, the usual initial dosage of ramipril is 1.25 mg once daily. Subsequent dosage should be titrated according to individual tolerance and blood pressure response, up to a maximum of 5 mg daily. In patients with heart failure following acute myocardial infarction and who have creatinine clearances less than 40 mL/minute, the usual initial dosage of ramipril is 1.25 mg once daily; dosage may be increased to 1.25 mg twice daily. Subsequent dosage should be titrated according to individual clinical response and tolerance up to a maximum dosage of 2.5 mg twice daily.

Patients with known or suspected renal artery stenosis should receive an initial ramipril dosage of 1.25 mg once daily; subsequent dosage should be adjusted based on blood pressure response.

Since ramipril is primarily metabolized by hepatic esterases to ramiprilat (its active moiety), hepatic impairment may result in increased ramipril plasma concentrations. In addition, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system (see Renal Effects under Warnings/Precautions: General Precautions, in Cautions) may be activated in hypertensive patients with severe hepatic impairment (e.g., severe liver cirrhosis and/or ascites). However, the manufacturers make no specific recommendations regarding dosage adjustment in patients with hepatic impairment.

For additional information on initiating and adjusting ramipril dosage in the management of hypertension, including recommendations for blood pressure monitoring, and in .

Cautions

Contraindications

History of angioedema related to previous angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment.

Known hypersensitivity to ramipril, other ACE inhibitors, or any ingredient in the formulation.

Concomitant use of ramipril and aliskiren in patients with diabetes mellitus.(See Drug Interactions: Drugs that Block the Renin-Angiotensin System.)

Warnings/Precautions

Warnings

Hypotension

Like other ACE inhibitors, ramipril rarely is associated with hypotension in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. Symptomatic hypotension may occur; patients at particular risk include those with severe volume and/or salt depletion secondary to prolonged diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, dialysis, diarrhea, or vomiting. Volume and/or salt depletion should be corrected before starting ramipril therapy.

Marked hypotension may occur in patients with heart failure (with or without associated renal impairment), which may be associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and, rarely, acute renal failure and/or death. In patients with heart failure, ramipril therapy should be started under close medical supervision, and patients should be followed closely for at least 2 weeks after initiation of ramipril or diuretic therapy or dosage adjustment of either drug.(See Dosage and Administration: Dosage.)

If hypotension occurs, the patient should be placed in the supine position, and if necessary, an IV infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride injection to expand fluid volume should be administered. Ramipril therapy usually may be continued following restoration of blood pressure and volume.

Hematologic Effects

Neutropenia/agranulocytosis, anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia may occur in patients receiving ACE inhibitors, particularly in patients with renal impairment (especially those with concomitant collagen vascular disease [e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma]). Monitoring of leukocytes in patients with collagen vascular disease, especially if renal impairment exists, should be considered.

Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality

ACE inhibitors can cause fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality when used in pregnancy during the second and third trimesters. ACE inhibitors also increase the risk of major congenital malformations when administered during the first trimester of pregnancy. Discontinue as soon as possible when pregnancy is detected, unless continued use is considered lifesaving. Nearly all women can be transferred successfully to alternative therapy for the remainder of their pregnancy. For additional information on the risk of ACE inhibitors during pregnancy, .

Hepatic Effects

Rare ACE inhibitor-associated clinical syndrome manifested initially by cholestatic jaundice may occur; may progress to fulminant hepatic necrosis and is potentially fatal. Patients receiving an ACE inhibitor, including ramipril, who develop jaundice or marked elevations in hepatic enzymes should discontinue the drug and receive appropriate monitoring.

Sensitivity Reactions

Sensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic reactions and angioedema (including laryngeal or tongue edema) are potentially fatal. Head and neck angioedema involving the tongue, glottis, or larynx may cause airway obstruction. If laryngeal stridor or angioedema of the face, tongue, or glottis occurs, ramipril should be discontinued and appropriate therapy (e.g., epinephrine) should be initiated immediately.

Intestinal angioedema (occasionally without a prior history of facial angioedema or elevated serum levels of complement 1 [C1] esterase inhibitor) also has been reported in patients receiving ACE inhibitors. Intestinal angioedema, which frequently presents as abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting), usually is diagnosed by abdominal CT scan, ultrasound, or surgery; symptoms usually have resolved after discontinuance of the ACE inhibitor. Intestinal angioedema should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who develop abdominal pain during therapy with an ACE inhibitor.

Patients receiving concomitant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (e.g., temsirolimus) may be at increased risk for angioedema.

Life-threatening anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in at least 2 patients receiving ACE inhibitors while undergoing desensitization treatment with hymenoptera venom. When ACE inhibitors were temporarily discontinued before desensitization with the venom, anaphylactoid reactions did not recur; however, such reactions recurred after inadvertent rechallenge. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported following initiation of hemodialysis that used a high-flux membrane in patients receiving an ACE inhibitor. In addition, anaphylactoid reactions have been reported in patients undergoing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis with dextran sulfate absorption.

General Precautions

Renal Effects

Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system may cause renal impairment and rarely renal failure and/or death in susceptible patients (e.g., those whose renal function depends on the activity of the RAA system such as patients with severe heart failure).

Deterioration in renal function, manifested as transient increases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations may occur following administration of ACE inhibitor therapy, particularly in hypertensive patients with unilateral or bilateral renal-artery stenosis, preexisting renal impairment, or concomitant diuretic therapy. This effect was usually reversible following discontinuance of ACE inhibitor and/or diuretic therapy. Renal function should be monitored closely during the first few weeks of therapy and periodically thereafter in such patients.

Effects on Potassium

Hyperkalemia can develop, especially in those with renal impairment or diabetes mellitus and those receiving drugs that can increase serum potassium concentration (e.g., potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, potassium-containing salt substitutes).

Cough

Persistent and nonproductive; resolves after drug discontinuance.

Surgery/Anesthesia

Hypotension may occur in patients undergoing surgery or during anesthesia with agents that produce hypotension. Hypotension in such patients may be corrected by volume expansion.

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Category C (first trimester); Category D (second and third trimesters).(See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality under Warnings/Precautions: Warnings, in Cautions.)

Lactation

Ramipril and its metabolites were undetectable in breast milk following a single 10-mg oral dose of the drug in nursing women; however, milk concentrations resulting from multiple doses of the drug have not been determined. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from ramipril in nursing infants, the manufacturers state that women receiving the drug should not breast-feed.

Pediatric Use

The manufacturers state that safety and efficacy of ramipril in children younger than 18 years of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use

No substantial differences in safety and efficacy relative to younger adults, but increased sensitivity cannot be ruled out. Increased ramiprilat plasma concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) have been reported in some geriatric patients.

Renal Impairment

Renal function may decrease with ACE inhibitor therapy in susceptible patients. Use with caution in those with renal impairment. (See Dosage and Administration: Special Populations and also under Warnings/Precautions: General Precautions, Renal Effects, in Cautions.)

Hepatic Impairment

Use with caution. (See Dosage and Administration: Special Populations.)

Black Patients

ACE inhibitors not as effective.(See Uses: Hypertension.)

Common Adverse Effects

Adverse effects reported in 1% or more of patients receiving ramipril and considered possibly or probably related to treatment include asthenia/fatigue, hypotension, postural hypotension, increased cough, dizziness, headache, angina pectoris, nausea, syncope, vomiting, vertigo, abnormal kidney function, and diarrhea.

Drug Interactions

Drugs that Block the Renin-Angiotensin System

Increased risk of renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension with concomitant use of other drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., aliskiren, angiotensin II receptor antagonists); when ramipril is used concomitantly with such drugs, blood pressure, renal function, and serum concentrations of electrolytes should be monitored closely. Concomitant use of ramipril and aliskiren is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus; in addition, such concomitant use should be avoided in patients with renal impairment (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] less than 60 mL/minute per 1.73 m ).

Drugs Increasing Serum Potassium Concentration

Potential pharmacologic interaction (additive hyperkalemic effect). Includes potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and other drugs that can cause hyperkalemia.

Diuretics

Potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic interaction (hypotensive effect).

Lithium

Potential pharmacokinetic interaction (increased lithium concentrations and clinical toxicity).

mTOR Inhibitors

Patients receiving concomitant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (e.g., temsirolimus) may be at increased risk for angioedema.

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents

Potential pharmacologic interaction (decreased renal function and increased serum potassium concentrations).

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